The long-gone Coon Chicken Inn restaurant chain claimed in its advertising that it was “nationally famous.” I believe that was a bit of an exaggeration – then – but it might be true now. Its present-day fame, more accurately its notoriety, is based on its objectionable name and use of a grotesque racist image on buildings, delivery trucks, china, glassware, and printed advertising pieces.
To whatever degree it was nationally famous it can only have been for its racist depictions. Certainly it could not have achieved fame for its food. The menu of the Coon Chicken Inn reveals selections only a few degrees more ambitious than the drive-ins of the 1930s. Other than chicken dinners, the menu included chili, burgers, and ice cream desserts.
Nonetheless, in its time it was a popular chain of four roadhouse restaurants with one each in Salt Lake City (est. 1925), Seattle WA (est. 1929), Portland OR (est. 1930), and Spokane WA. According to one account there were also Coon Chicken Inns in Denver, Los Angeles, and San Francisco but I’ve been unable to find any trace of them.
In 1930 Seattle’s NAACP protested against the restaurant’s racist imagery. Under threat of prosecution the chain’s owners, Maxon Lester Graham and Adelaide Graham, repainted the grotesque black faces on their restaurants’ entryways blue. They also obliterated the words “Coon Chicken Inn” painted on the figures’ teeth.
Having avoided prosecution they changed nothing else, keeping the chain’s name and logo, all of which seemed not to bother the restaurants’ white patrons at all. I would guess most people gave little thought to the large grinning heads, having already accepted the caricatures as merely another instance of the widespread “comical” portrayal of black Americans. They probably also saw them as just another example of an eye-catching building feature employed by roadside restaurants to attract motorists’ attention. Few white people perceived the restaurants as racist.
The Coon Chicken Inns regularly hosted meetings of clubs, civic organizations, and sororities ranging from a Democratic Club to the Junior Hadassah. They were the sites of wedding, anniversary, and birthday parties. In 1942 they were listed in Best Places to Eat, a nationwide guidebook published by the Illinois Auto Club. I can’t help but think that the restaurant in Portland was a peculiarly appropriate location for an Eastern Star group that chose it for their “Poor Taste” party in 1937.
Like the word “mammy” and its stereotyped image, “coon chicken” was supposed to communicate that the restaurant specialized in Southern cuisine, in this case fried chicken. Mammy names and images were widely used by restaurants in the early and middle 20th century. The crudely constructed Mammy’s Cupboard in Natchez MS was another example of roadside “building as sign.” There was a Mammy’s Shanty in Atlanta, Mammy’s Cafeterias in San Antonio TX, and others in the South. Nor was the East without its Mammys: in Atlantic City was Mammy’s Donut Waffle Shop while Brooklyn had Mammy’s Pantry.
Several good articles have been published analyzing the Coon Chicken Inn’s everyday racism and the white public’s blithe tolerance of it. I recommend Catherine Roth’s essay for the Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project. Because of the volume and quality of what’s been written I hesitated at first to publish this post. I also hate the thought of increasing the desirability of Coon Chicken Inn advertising artifacts. Although there are good reasons to preserve historic racist ephemera, the extreme popularity of these images is disturbing. So great is the demand for them that the marketplace is flooded with fakes, including newly dreamed-up objects that were never used by the chain. Black faces have made a comeback along with “Coon Chicken Inn” on the teeth.
The Portland and Seattle branches of the Coon Chicken Inn closed in 1949 but the Salt Lake City unit remained in business until 1957.
© Jan Whitaker, 2014
11 responses to “Famous in its day, now infamous: Coon Chicken Inn”
How were they “tolerant” of it . . . if they went out of business and got closed down? Obviously it wasn’t tolerated at all or they’d still be open now today.
They were were popular and were in business for many years. Very few businesses from the 1930s — let alone restaurants — are still around. I’d certainly hope that such a business with an insulting caricature such as that would not be tolerated today.
Glenn Grush. Largest Private Collector of Coon Chicken Inn Memorabilia
Glenn, do you want a menu from the CCI? It is on a dark orangish 4″ x 7″ card where the noon luncheon is Forty Cents. If yes, name the price and I can ship to you. I am selling it for a friend so it is not mine personally.
The Coon Chicken Inn originated in Salt Lake City. A comment below says KFC would have been stiff competition and the comment is probably right. Interestingly, the first KFC franchise restaurant was in Salt Lake City and it is still in business.
I remember stories about the one in Salt Lake on Highland Drive which was a very few blocks from where my mother grew up. When it closed it changed to a Chuck-a-rama, but it is no longer is existence at that spot.
Although its racist motif brings it infamy today, the Coon Chicken Inn was renown in the day for excellent Fried Chicken. Even if such a grotesque facade could have survived longer, KFC would have killed it along with most of the other Chicken Houses which once served pan-fried chicken with homemade gravy.
I’d no idea, and really, have no idea why such imagery would be popular at all. Obviously there’s the historical aspect of it, and for that reason it should be preserved, but…popular? That’s rather depressing. I can’t believe they used that sort of artwork to advertise their restaurants!
Mammy’s Cupboard still stands, though mammy has been lightened considerably.
Fascinating column as always.
In Forest Hills, Queens, we had Topsy’s in the 1950 & 1960s. It was also black Americana themed. I went to a classmates Bar Mitzvah there in 1962 & have postcard from it.